古迹概览

光孝寺
日期:2020-05-07 浏览次数: 字号: [ ]


光孝寺位于广州市越秀区东山街道彭家巷社区光孝路109号,以其悠久历史、宏伟规模居岭南佛教丛林之冠,也是中外文化交流的重要见证。根据《光孝寺志》记载,寺址初为西汉第五代南越王赵建德王府。后来光孝寺多次改名,南宋绍兴二十一年始定名为光孝,改广字为光字,所以名称改为“报恩光孝禅寺”,简称光孝寺,沿用至今。

该寺坐北朝南,占地面积达3万多平方米。中轴线上主要建筑有山门、天王殿、大雄宝殿、瘗发塔、柯子树。其西有大悲幢、鼓楼、睡佛殿、西铁塔等,其东有达摩古迹洗钵泉、钟楼、伽蓝殿、祖堂(六祖殿)、菩提树、东铁塔等。

大雄宝殿为东晋隆安五年(401)昙摩耶舍始建,现存建筑为清初顺治年间改制扩建之遗物,尚存有宋代建筑风格。重檐歇山顶,屋面坡度平缓,有举折,抬梁穿斗混合式梁架。瘗发塔建于唐仪凤元年(676),是为纪念惠能大师出家剃度而建,据说是惠能削发受戒后埋藏头发之地。该塔是以石为基础的楼阁式砖塔,八角七层,高7.8米,每层有佛龛,嵌有灰塑佛像。东西铁塔是南汉国在广州遗留下来的古迹。西铁塔,铸于南汉大宝六年(963),是中国现存最早的有确切年款的铁塔。莲花底座之上原有7层方形的塔身,加上塔顶共9层,全高6.5米。七层四面共有1000尊浮雕佛像,清顺治六年(1649)部分毁于炮火,现仅存底座以上3层。东铁塔于南汉大宝十年(967),与西铁塔相仿,莲花底座铸有精美的二龙戏珠纹饰。光孝寺东西铁塔是我国现存最早的大型铁塔。2003至2004年,光孝寺的主体建筑进行了修缮。

1961年3月,公布为全国重点文物保护单位。

保护范围: 东界:僧舍—甘露坊—附属建筑一线围墙。南界:附属建筑—大门—净慧路北侧线—南廊—佛学研究中心一线。西界:(双桂洞)佛学研究中心—(法华堂)陈列馆—慈度堂一线围墙。北界:慈度堂—方丈一僧舍—线围墙。

建设控制地带: 东界:海珠北路西侧沿街建筑一线,包括沿街酒店、空调制冷店铺等。南界:净慧路南侧沿街建筑一线,包括光孝寺大门至宁家里之间光孝路两侧的区域。西界:人民北路西侧一线,自北端金沙广场至南侧的新世界大厦南侧店铺。北界: 市府一路南缘一线,包括广州市人民医院沿路的办公楼,以及东侧少量的店铺。


Guangxiao Temple is located on theNo. 109, Guangxiao Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou. It is one of the oldestBuddhist temples in Guangzhou. As the special geographical position, Guan XiaoTemple often acted as a stopover point for Asian missionary monks in the past.According to records of “The Annals of Guangxiao Temple”, the temple site wasoriginally the fifth generation of Zhao Jiande in the Western Han Dynasty.Since then, the Guangxiao Temple was renamed many times. In the twenty-oneyears of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty, the temple was named as "Baoen Guangxiao Temple", abbreviated to Guangxiao Temple, and the namestill used today.

Guangxiao Temple faces south, 35.36meters wide and 24.8 meters deep. It covers an area of about 30,000 squaremeters by 1990. The main building on the central axis includes the Shanmen,Four Heavenly Kings Hall, Mahavira Hall, Hair Burying Pagoda and etc. In thewest, there are buildings of Da Bei Zhuang, Drum Tower, Sleeping Buddha Halland West Tower. In the East, there are Damour's historic sites - the washingbowl spring, the bell tower, the Jia Lan Dian, the ancestral hall(Liu Zu Dian),the East Tower, and so on. The most important temple buildings are the MahaviraHall, Hair Burying Pagoda, the East Tower and the West Tower.

The Mahavira Hall was originallybuilt in 401 in the Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420) by senior monk Dharmayasasfrom Western Regions. The architecture has the style of the Song Dynasty, whichcontains the double eaves, gablet roof, the roof slope is gentle, the mix ofpost and lintel construction and column and tie construction, and yellow glazedtile surface. Under the Bodhi tree behind the Mahavira Hall, there is the HairBurying Pagoda. In 676 during the Yifeng era (676–679) in the Tang dynasty(618–907), master Huineng cut his hair and received ordination as a monk. AbbotYinzong buried his hair here and built a pagoda to commemorate it. Octagonal inshape and 7.8 meters high, it has 7 stories with 8 niches on each. The East andWest Tower were made by the emperor Liuchang of the South Han Dynasty. Built inthe 963 in the Southern Han dynasty (907–960), the original West Tower was ninestories with tower top, 6.5 meters high, but now only preserves the bottomthree floors. The building was destroyed by the artillery fire in the QingDynasty (1649). There are 1000 embossed Buddha statues on all sides of theseven floor. The East Tower was built in the 967 in the Southern Han dynasty(907–960), Similar to the West Tower, the lotus pedestal is decorated with anexquisite dragon and Pearl ornamentation. The East Tower and West Tower are theoldest existing iron towers in China. In 2001, more than 8000 square meters ofgreen squares and parking lots were built in front of the main entrance of thetemple. From 2003 to 2004, the main building of Guangxiao Temple was renovated.

In March 1961, the State Councilannounced that the Guangxiao Temple was added in the list of "CulturalRelics of National Importance under the Protection of the State".


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